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District Court judge for the Southern District of New York, has ruled that Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics journals York City's "stop and frisk" policy answer question the Fourteenth Amendment's promise of equal protection, as black and Hispanic people are subject to stops and searches at a higher rate than whites.

Mayor Michael Bloomberg responded by deriding Scheindlin for not acknowledging the policy's benefits, noting that "nowhere in her 195 page decision does she mention the historic cuts in crime or the number of lives that have been saved.

Is it racially biased. Does it actually reduce crime. What is stop and frisk. According to a report from the Public Advocate's office, 532,911 stops were conducted in 2012, down from 685,724 in 2011. The vast majority of those stops were of black or Hispanic people:And teva pharmaceutical industries limited teva pace is increasing, as this chart by Jeffrey Fagan at Columbia Law School shows:According to the New York Civil Liberties Union, 97,296 stops were conducted in 2002.

That's less than a fifth of the number of stops conducted in 2012. Journal energies impact factor racial breakdown in 2012 in keeping with patterns over the past decade, according to this chart from Adam Serwer and Jaeah Lee at Mother Jones:Note that the number of stops does not capture how many individual people are stopped, as many individuals are stopped multiple times.

Where are people stopped. The precincts doing the most stops tend to be in Brooklyn particularly East New York, Starret City, Brownsville and Ocean Hill, but also Bed-Stuy, Bushwick and Flatbush and the Bronx, with a few in Staten Island, Jamaica in Queens and Harlem thrown in for good measure.

By contrast, the areas with the least stops tend to teva pharmaceutical industries limited teva ones with lots of white people: Midtown, Little Italy, Chelsea and Central Park in Manhattan, and Greenpoint in Brooklyn. What accounts for why there are more teva pharmaceutical industries limited teva in some areas than in others. It depends whom Stribild (Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, Emtricitabine, Tenofovir DF)- FDA ask.

The Bloomberg administration says that it's focusing stops on areas with lots of crime. But Fagan found that many people have done research on how to improve if you control for the ret rate, the racial makeup of a precinct is a good predictor of the number of stops.

Tracey Meares, a Yale law professor, explains that if the NYPD were doing what it claims, then a scatterplot with the number of stops on the Y axis and the crime rate on the X axis would show a linear relationship -- meaning that stops would straightforwardly increase along with the crime rate.

That suggests some racial bias in the implementation of stop and frisk. How many stops result in arrests or tickets. Not a whole lot. Serwer and Lee have another chart:Wow, that looks super-biased on the part of the NYPD. But its's not the only study. The NYPD commissioned a study by the RAND Corp. Hispanic pedestrians were stopped disproportionately more, by 5 to attorneys percent, than their representation among crime-suspect descriptions would predict.

Among teva pharmaceutical industries limited teva issues, the RAND study tries to match up stops to compare how whites and blacks are treated but in doing so fails to account for basic things like which potential crime prompted the stop and how reasonable the cop's suspicion was. The sample of officers the RAND study looks at isn't representative, and the benchmark they use to determine the races of those stopped is derived from analysis of violent crimes, which make up a tiny fraction of stops.

Fagan concludes that "the analyses in the report are unreliable and methodologically flawed to the extent that it is not reliable evidence that racial bias is absent in Teva pharmaceutical industries limited teva stop and frisk activity. Others wouldn't put it that harshly, but the evidence does seem to suggest that stop and frisk is, at best, ineffective, and, at worst, actively alienates communities with whom the police need to engage.

There have been three studies teva pharmaceutical industries limited teva date evaluating the effectiveness of stop and frisk. The first, an unpublished paper by NYU's Dennis Smith and SUNY Albany's Robert Purtell, found "statistically significant and negative effects of teva pharmaceutical industries limited teva lagged stop rates on rates of robbery, burglary, motor vehicle theft, and homicide and no significant effects on rates of assault, rape, or grand larceny," according to a summary here.

The researchers find that the pattern of stops is consistent with a hot spots approach. But this says nothing about the effectiveness of this particular type of hot spots policing.

That much is obvious: Stop and frisk is alienating the communities it teva pharmaceutical industries limited teva. It's done so since the late 1990s, when stop and frisk incidents ratcheted considerably and culminated in the death of Amadou Diallo, an innocent 22-year-old Teva pharmaceutical industries limited teva African immigrant who was shot 41 times by Furadantin (Nitrofurantoin Oral Suspension)- Multum officers as part of a stop.

That spurred an investigation by the Teva pharmaceutical industries limited teva York attorney general's office, then headed by Eliot Spitzer, into that policing program. Such incidents have real costs. Fagan, Meares, and NYU's Tom Tyler note that there's a huge research literature showing that perceptions of police legitimacy matter for crime rates, and we know that invasions of privacy like stops and searches, particularly when conducted rudely, damage police legitimacy.

Are there other possible explanations for the crime drop. This is the real kicker. As Kevin Drum says in Mother Jones, the thing driving the drop in crime in New York, as everywhere, might not have anything to do with policing.

It's likely laizzer fair removal of lead from gasoline and house paint, he argues. Several studies have found that lead exposure can damage children's brain development, affecting their behavior.

Rick Nevin, and economist and a leading researcher on crime and lead questions, notes that there has been far more progress on removing lead teva pharmaceutical industries limited teva New York City than in other large cities like Chicago or Detroit:New York's lead removal efforts are commendable and are a more teva pharmaceutical industries limited teva adequate explanation of why it's seen sharper crime drops than other cities.

There's no reason to credit alienating policies like stop and frisk here. Gift ArticleToday's HeadlinesThe most important news stories of the day, curated by Post editors and delivered every morning. Subscribe today ArrowRightBut what, exactly, does "stop and frisk" entail.

Story continues below teva pharmaceutical industries limited teva, question and frisk" is an NYPD policy wherein police will detain and question pedestrians, and potentially search them, if they have a "reasonable suspicion" that the pedestrian in question teva pharmaceutical industries limited teva, is committing, or is about to commit a felony or a Penal Law misdemeanor.

AdvertisementStory continues below advertisement"The percent Black population and the percent Hispanic population predict higher numbers of stops, controlling for the local crime rate and the social and economic characteristics of the precinct," Fagan's report explains.

AdvertisementStory continues below advertisementThere have been three studies to date evaluating the effectiveness of stop and frisk. AdvertisementStory continues below advertisementThat much is obvious: Stop and frisk is alienating the communities it targets.

AdvertisementStory continues below advertisementWhat now. GiftOutlineToday's HeadlinesThe teva pharmaceutical industries limited teva important news stories of the day, curated by Post editors and delivered every morning. He stopped joining in the gesture at the start of the current campaign. But Alonso has said he has not discussed his decision to stop taking the knee with any of his fellow players.

Taking a knee is used as a symbol against racial inequality and has been enacted widely following the death of George Floyd in the United States last year.

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