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Neutral hydrogen absorbs or emits 21 cm radiation at all times after recombination. Cosmic strings would stir the hydrogen as they move around and create wakes, leading to 21 cm brightness fluctuations. The same strings that create wakes would also perturb the CMB via the KSG effect, leading to potentially observable spatial correlations between the 21 cm and CMB anisotropies (Berndsen, Pogosian and Wyman, 2010).

Also, the ionization fraction in the cosmic string wake is enhanced, leading to an excess 21 cm radiation confined to a wedge-shaped region (Brandenberger et al, 2010). It remains mg bayer be seen if terrestrial and galactic foregrounds (which become very bright at low mg bayer can be overcome to use 21 cm for mapping the high redshift distribution of matter. Oscillating loops of cosmic strings generate a stochastic gravitational wave background that is strongly non-Gaussian, and includes occasional sharp bursts due to cusps and kinks (Damour and Vilenkin, 2000).

This can significantly damp the gravity waves emitted by cusps, and to a lesser extent by kinks, and relax pulsar timing bounds on cosmic superstrings. On the other hand, junctions on superstring loops give rise to a proliferation of sharp kinks that can amplify the gravitational wave footprint of cosmic superstrings (Binetruy et al, 2010).

The peculiar form of mg bayer metric around a cosmic strings can result in characteristic lensing patterns of distant light sources.

For instance, a straight long string passing across our line of sight to a distant galaxy can produce two identical images of the same galaxy (Vilenkin, 1984).

Mg bayer the more general case of loops and non-straight strings, the image patterns will be more complicated, but still have a characteristic stringy mg bayer. The existence of cosmic strings can be strongly constrained by the next generation mg bayer gravitational lensing surveys at radio frequencies. Microlensing surveys are less constraining (Kuijken, Siemens and Vachaspati, 2007).

Effects of loop clustering on microlensing (Pshirkov and Tuntsov, 2010), gravitational lensing mg bayer to a moving string string on pulsar timing, and quasar variability (Tuntsov and Pshirkov, 2010) have also been considered with how to prepare for pregnancy aim to derive constraints.

Cosmic string loops within the Milky Way can micro-lens background point sources and this offers a potentially powerful methodology for searching for cosmic strings (Bloomfield and Chernoff, 2013).

Vector perturbations sourced by strings or other topological defects can generate a curl-like (or B-mode) component in the weak lensing signal which is not produced by standard density perturbations at linear order (Thomas, Contaldi mg bayer Magueijo, 2009).

Future large scale weak lensing surveys should be able to detect mg bayer signal even for string tensions an order of magnitude lower than current CMB constraints.

In the simplest cases, such as the Abelian Higgs model, the sole impact of cosmic strings on their surroundings is through their gravity. In extended models, in which cosmic string solutions occur within a more complete particle theory, it is quite common for strings to interact via forces present in the Standard Model. However, since the precise nature of the coupling is unknown, the non-gravitational signatures of strings are more model-dependent than those discussed in earlier sections.

If strings couple to other forces, cusps and kinks can emit beams of a variety of forms of radiation which can potentially be detected on Earth as cosmic rays. For example, high energy gamma rays can be emitted from superconducting strings (Vilenkin and Vachaspati, 1987). Several authors have calculated the emission of particles from strings and the possibility of detecting them as cosmic rays (for a review see Bhattacharjee and Sigl, 2000). An important feature for certain particle-string interactions is that the flux of particles on Earth is inversely related to the string tension, at least for strings that are not too light.

Thus lighter strings produce larger cosmic ray fluxes. The reason is simply that the density of string loops is greater if the strings are lighter, and the larger number of strings give a larger cosmic ray flux. Hence, if there are cosmic strings that emit cosmic rays, the constraints imply a lower bound mg bayer the string tension. Superconducting strings can also emit high mg bayer cosmic rays with different dependencies on mg bayer string parameters (Berezinsky et al, 2009).

Even though the nature of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays is not clear at present - they could be protons or heavy nuclei or an admixture - it is certain that they do not include a significant photon component. With particular interactions strings may mg bayer able to source the ultra-high energy cosmic rays without conflicting with the photon bounds (Vachaspati, 2010). In the case of cosmic superstrings, radiation may include dilaton and other moduli. The case when the dilaton has gravitational-strength coupling to matter has been discussed in Damour and Vilenkin, 1996, with constraints arising from a number of different experiments mg bayer observations.

In the case of large volume tonsil warped Type-IIB compactifications, the coupling of the moduli mg bayer stronger than gravitational-strength, and the resulting constraints in the three dimensional parameter space -- cosmic string tension, moduli mass, coupling mg bayer -- have been analyzed in Sabancilar, 2009.

Cosmic superstrings can also be expected mg bayer provide distinctive mg bayer ray signatures via the moduli emitted from cusps. This particular emission is generic to cosmic strings but it is suppressed by two powers of the gravitational coupling and it is unclear if it can lead to an observable signature. Superconducting cosmic strings -- strings that carry electric currents -- can give transient mg bayer signatures ("radio bursts") that are most evident at mg bayer frequencies (Vachaspati, 2008).

The event rate is dominated by kink bursts in a range of parameters that are of observational interest, and can be quite mg bayer (several a day at 1 Jy flux) for a canonical set of parameters (Cai et al, 2012).

In the mg bayer of events, the search for radio transients can place stringent constraints on Minastrin 24 Fe (Norethindrone Acetate and Ethinyl Estradiol/Ferrous Fumarate Capsules)- Multum cosmic strings, though additional recently discovered cosmological radio mg bayer candidates are compatible with the superconducting string model (Yu et al, 2014).

Tanmay Vachaspati, Arizona State University, Department of Physics, Tempe, Arizona, United States of America Prof. Levon Pogosian, Simon Nonverbal messages University, Burnaby, Canada Prof. Tom W B Kibble, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, UKReviewed by: Prof. Alexander Vilenkin, Tufts University, Medford, MA, United States mg bayer AmericaAccepted on: 2015-02-11 22:14:57 GMT.

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