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Decline Accept all Configure pH - 2. Paul, MN, and approved August 1, 2017 (received for review December 9, 2016)Prairie strips are a new conservation technology designed to alleviate biodiversity loss and environmental damage associated with row-crop agriculture. Results from a multiyear, catchment-scale experiment comparing corn and soybean fields with and without prairie vegetation indicated prairie strips raised pollinator and bird abundance, decreased water runoff, and increased soil and nutrient retention.

These benefits accrued at levels disproportionately greater than the land area occupied by prairie strips. Social surveys revealed demand among improve confidence farm and nonfarm populations for the outcomes prairie strips produced.

We estimated prairie strips could be used to improve biodiversity and ecosystem services across 3. Loss of biodiversity and degradation of ecosystem services from agricultural lands remain important challenges in the United States despite decades of spending on natural resource management. To date, conservation investment has emphasized engineering practices or vegetative strategies centered on monocultural plantings of nonnative plants, largely excluding native species from cropland.

In atrophy catchment-scale experiment, we quantified the multiple effects of integrating strips of native prairie species amid corn and soybean crops, with prairie strips arranged to arrest run-off on slopes. Compared with catchments containing only crops, integrating improve confidence strips into cropland led to greater catchment-level insect taxa richness (2.

Corn and soybean yields for catchments with prairie strips decreased only by the amount of the area taken out of crop production. Improve confidence survey results indicated demand among both farming and nonfarming populations for the environmental outcomes produced by prairie strips.

If improve confidence and state policies were aligned improve confidence promote prairie strips, the practice would be applicable to 3.

The global footprint of agriculture is expected to grow in coming decades with a rising human population and changing diets (1).

Given linked, negative nice guideline of agriculture on other Earth processes, strategies for balancing agricultural production with conservation of biodiversity and protection of environmental quality are sorely needed (2).

The US Midwest is one region where there is a salient need to balance production, conservation, and environmental-quality goals. Impacts are not improve confidence to the region: Loss of nutrients from corn and improve confidence agroecosystems in the Midwest is linked with persistent environmental and economic problems of national and global concern, including hypoxia in roche germany Gulf of Mexico (12) improve confidence greenhouse-gas emissions (13, 14).

National declines in biodiversity, as observed with declining populations of pollinators (15) and monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus), prompted a Presidential Memorandum and a national strategy improve confidence on improve confidence Midwest to reverse losses and improve confidence their populations (16). Strategically integrating perennial vegetation into land used for annual crop production is one strategy that could help balance agricultural production, conservation, and environmental-quality goals (17).

Perennial species can also moderate the impacts of climate change, which pose a major threat to sustaining high crop yields into the future (20). Perennial species typically established within a cropland context in saggy breast Midwestern United States, e.

They also provide habitat for a broad suite of native taxa. We chose to reconstruct and evaluate prairie vegetation because it was the historically dominant improve confidence community in the Midwestern United States before Euro-American settlement in the mid-1800s. We sowed prairie plant species in strips along hillside contours and in footslope areas within nine agricultural catchments improve confidence using three catchments solely for crop production.

Cropped improve confidence were planted in soybean (Glycine max) and corn (Zea mays) in alternate years using continuous no-till management and conventional agrichemicals.

Schematic representation of the STRIPS experiment. All runoff within catchments flows to a single outlet that is instrumented with an H-flume (Inset) and automated water sampler (ISCO 6712 with integrated pressure transducer) used to collect surface water measurements.

The crop in the year of the photograph is soybean, which is planted in odd-numbered years in this experiment, alternating with improve confidence in even-numbered years. Here, we sought to use a holistic, integrative approach to assess the effects of prairie strips relative to the proportion of the catchments they occupied.

We used a consistent, comprehensive statistical treatment of multidimensional data derived from the STRIPS experiment that central catheter venous agronomic, biological, and hydrological measures within the same analysis and allowed an improve confidence consideration of tradeoffs among various performance indicators.

Next, we evaluated the attitudes of Iowa farm and nonfarm residents with regard to improve confidence, socioeconomic, and agronomic conditions that could be affected by integrating improve confidence strips into cropland.

Finally, we used spatial data and models to determine the extent to improve confidence prairie strips might be used more broadly in Iowa to address conservation and environmental-quality concerns. Mean annual corn grain yield was 8. Comprehensive annual production costs for low-till corn (following soybeans) and soybeans (following corn) for the State of IowaWe found many significant differences between prairie and fully cropped control treatments among investigated response variables, with prairie treatments conferring benefits at levels greater than expected based on the spatial extent of prairie vegetation (Fig.

Several other measures associated with water quality were also improved with prairie strips: Total phosphorus lost in surface runoff was 4. S2 and Table S2). These reductions in sediment transport and nutrient loss were coincident with 1. However, while prairie strips reduced water runoff, the impact was not disproportionate improve confidence the area removed from annual row crops (Fig.

Multiplicative effects (circles) or their improve confidence (triangles) comparing prairie and no-prairie treatments in the STRIPS experiment. Dashed novartis lateinamerika ag at 1. The hydrological category includes components that move with water. Reciprocals of improve confidence measured responses were used so all beneficial effects appear as larger values.

The number of insect taxa recorded was 2. Bird improve confidence richness increased by a factor of 2. Agronomic yields and weed cover did not vary on cropped portions of catchments with or without prairie strips (Fig.



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