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In addition, a Nambu-Goto loop evolves periodically lewin time and hence loses energy to gravitational and other forms of radiation.

A typical loop will have a number of kinks and cusps, and the spectrum of high-frequency gravitational radiation emitted from a string depends Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray (Flonase)- FDA these features. The evolution of the network from its formation until today is an extremely complex problem involving very disparate length scales. Other groups have performed field theory simulations in which the strings have structure. And yet others have built analytical models to describe the evolution of the network.

These analyses show that the network reaches a self-similar attractor solution on large scales in which all the properties and length scales ZTLido (Lidocaine)- FDA the network scale with time.

In Abelian-Higgs simulations, many fewer loops are seen and the string network energy is mostly dissipated directly into particle radiation (Vincent, Antunes and Hindmarsh, 1997).

At formation though, the loops are not in the scaling distribution: they relax towards scaling after a time which can be estimated. Numerical simulations, however, observe a population of non-scaling loops. Some of these are a remnant of the initial loop distribution formed at the phase transition, and others are small loops freshly formed from small scale structure Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray (Flonase)- FDA long strings (see Figure 4). Similarly, on entering the matter era, the radiation era scaling distribution relaxes to the matter era scaling distribution.

The timescale for this process depends on the length of the loop, and is longer for shorter loops. A typical distribution of strings is show in Figure 4. The presence of strings in the universe can be deduced from their gravitational effects and other non-gravitational signatures if they happen to couple to other forces. For example, cusps on cosmic string loops emit bursts of gravitational waves (Damour and Vilenkin, 2000). Moving strings produce wakes in matter and line discontinuities in the cosmic microwave background (CMB).

They also induce characteristic patterns of lensed combustion and flame of background light sources.

Superconducting strings, in addition to the above effects, emit electromagnetic radiation that can potentially be Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray (Flonase)- FDA as radio bursts.

At present, the strongest bounds on the string tension come from constraints on the stochastic gravitational wave background from pulsar timing measurements Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray (Flonase)- FDA the LIGO interferometer.

However, these bounds are sensitive to the details of the string network evolution. On the other hand, bounds from CMB are weaker but also less model-dependent.

Different types of cosmic string signatures and their current status are reviewed below. Cosmic string networks persist throughout the history of the universe and actively source metric perturbations at all times.

Prior to cosmic recombination, density and velocity perturbations of baryon-photon fluid are produced in the wakes of moving cosmic strings, which then remain imprinted on the surface of last scattering. Both, wakes and the KSG effect, are induced by the deficit angle in the metric around a string. In addition, matter particles experience gravitational attraction to the string if it is not perfectly straight.

The spacetime around a straight cosmic string is locally flat, but globally conical, with a deficit angle determined by the string tension. Several groups have tried searching for such Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray (Flonase)- FDA features in the existing CMB maps and to forecast the prospects for future observations.

Detectable sharp edges can be present not only in CMB temperature maps, but also in polarization maps. The primary limitation in these types of studies comes not so much from the instrumental noise and angular resolution of the experiment, but from the fact that CMB is dominated by the Gaussian fluctuations on scales comparable to the size of the horizon at decoupling. Also, the above mentioned forecasts assume idealized line discontinuities produced by straight string segments.

Actual strings are not straight, and contain both infinite strings and string loops. It remains to be seen how well these methods perform under more realistic assumptions.

The most reliable bounds on cosmic strings are derived from the angular power spectrum of Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray (Flonase)- FDA temperature anisotropies measured by the WMAP and Planck satellites. Calculating the spectrum of CMB anisotropies sourced by strings requires tracking their evolution from just before recombination until today over a large range of scales.

Because obtaining an exact solution is quite challenging numerically, several approximate and semi-analytical methods have been used to evaluate biomechanic string CMB spectra.

For "conventional" strings, i. While most approaches adopt the Nambu-Goto approximation, Bevis et al, 2007, evolved the cosmic string field configurations in the Abelian-Higgs model. To make the calculation of CMB spectra numerically feasible, the fields were separately evolved over limited time ranges in the radiation and matter eras, and an interpolation scheme was used to connect the two scaling regimes.

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