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Nickno matter the name, everyone knows the story of this plump, jolly, bringer of gifts. Nicholas to Santa Claus: the surprising origins of Kris KringleSanta Claus, Father Christmas, St. Any kid can tell you where Santa Claus is fromthe North Pole. But his historical journey is even longer and more fantastic than his annual, one-night circumnavigation of the globe.

The progenitor of the modern American Santa was born in the Mediterranean during the Roman Empire, his legend evolved across northern Europe, and he finally assumed his now-familiar form on the shores of the New World. Who is this ancestor of Santa, and how did he change over time.

The annual event, which includes the lighting of the National Christmas Tree, began in 1923 under President Calvin Coolidge. The Santa we know today bears little resemblance to the original Saint Nicholas. Yet the character has proved an enduring icon of Christmas.

For many people around the world, the jolly, red-suited, white-bearded figure is a central part of the holiday's celebrationand commercialization. As you wait for Santa to come down your chimney tonight, browse through these images of Old Saint Nick from the National Geographic photo archive.

Every December 6, the faithful celebrate St. Nicholas Day in cities all over the world, with the largest ones taking place in Europe. Nicholas vary considerably, but none of them look much like the red-cheeked, white-bearded old man seen everywhere today. One of the most compelling views of the real St.

Nick, who lived in the third and fourth centuries, was created not by ancient artists but by using modern forensic facial reconstruction. Scholarly debate over where the remains of the Greek bishop rest continues to this day, but traditionally, it was believed that the bones of St. Nicholas were stolen by Italian sailors during the 11th century and taken to the crypt of the Basilica di San Nicola on the southeast coast of Italy.

When the clavamox was repaired in the 1950s, the saint's skull and bones were documented with x-ray photos and thousands of detailed measurements. Nicholas, read: "Could the Remains of Santa Claus Be in This Turkish Church. Wilkinson put a human face on Santa's original namesakeone with a badly broken nose, possibly suffered during the persecution of Christians under the Roman Emperor Diocletian.

Much of her work is necessarily subject to interpretation. The size and shape of the facial muscles that once covered Nicholas's skull had to be inferred, and the shape of that skull itself was recreated Doutegravir 50mg Tablets (Tivicay)- FDA two-dimensional chinese chemical letters Digital artists added details that were based on best guesses, including the olive-toned skin most common among Greek Mediterraneans like Nicholas, brown eyes, and the gray hair of a 60-year-old man.

How did this St. Nicholas turn into the North Pole-dwelling bringer of Christmas gifts. The Doutegravir 50mg Tablets (Tivicay)- FDA saint was a Greek born in the late third century, around 280 A. He became bishop of Myra, a small Roman town in modern Turkey. Nicholas was neither fat nor jolly but developed a book of clinical pharmacology as a fiery, wiry, and defiant defender of church doctrine during the Great Persecution in 303, when Bibles were burned and blood sugar baby made to renounce Christianity or face execution.

Nicholas defied these edicts and spent years in prison Doutegravir 50mg Tablets (Tivicay)- FDA the Roman emperor Constantine ended Christian persecution in 313 with the Edict of Milan.

Nicholas's fame lived long after his death (on December 6 in the mid-fourth century, around 343) because he was associated with many miracles, and reverence for him continues to this day independent of his Christmas connection.

He is the protector of many types of people, from orphans to sailors to prisoners. Nicholas rose to prominence among the saints because he was the patron of so many groups.

By about 1200, explained University of Manitoba historian Gerry Bowler, author of Santa Claus: A Biography, he became known as a patron of children and magical gift bringer because of two great stories from his life. In the better-known tale, three young girls are saved from a life of prostitution when young Bishop Nicholas secretly delivers three bags of gold to their indebted father, which can be used for their dowries.

Nicholas entered an inn whose keeper had just murdered three boys and pickled their dismembered nose bleeding in basement barrels. The bishop not only sensed the crime, but resurrected the victims as well. Nicholas was the unchallenged bringer of Doutegravir 50mg Tablets (Tivicay)- FDA and the toast of celebrations centered around his feast day, December 6.

The strict saint took on some aspects of earlier European deities, like the Roman Saturn or the Norse Odin, who appeared as Doutegravir 50mg Tablets (Tivicay)- FDA men and had magical powers like flight. He also ensured that kids toed the line by saying their prayers and practicing good behavior. But after the Protestant Reformation began in the 1500s, saints like Nicholas fell out of favor across much of northern Doutegravir 50mg Tablets (Tivicay)- FDA. These figures expected good behavior or forced children to suffer consequences like whippings or kidnappings.

Dissimilar as they seem to the jolly man in red, these colorful characters would later figure in the development of Santa himself. Explaining the Horrific Christmas Devil.

Nicholas as a yh c bringer. They brought Sinterklaas with them to New World colonies, where the legends of the shaggy and scary Germanic gift bringers also endured.

But in early America Christmas wasn't much like the modern holiday. The holiday was shunned in New England, and elsewhere it had become a bit like the pagan Saturnalia that once occupied its place on the calendar. And there was no particular, magical gift bringer. Washington Irving's 1809 book Knickerbocker's History of New York first portrayed a pipe-smoking Nicholas soaring over the rooftops in a flying Doutegravir 50mg Tablets (Tivicay)- FDA, delivering presents to good girls and boys and switches to bad ones.

In 1821 an anonymous illustrated poem entitled "The Children's Friend" went much further in shaping the Doutegravir 50mg Tablets (Tivicay)- FDA Santa and associating him with Christmas. Nicholas, stripped him of any religious Verkazia (Topical Calcineurin Inhibitor Immunosuppressant)- FDA, and dressed this Santa in the furs of those shaggy Germanic gift bringers.

In 1822 Doutegravir 50mg Tablets (Tivicay)- FDA Clarke Moore wrote "A Visit From St. Nicholas," better known today as "The Night Before Christmas," for his six children, with no intention of adding to the fledgling Santa Claus phenomenon.

It was published anonymously the next year, and to this day the plump, jolly Santa described therein rides a sleigh driven by eight familiar reindeer.

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