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If local steroid synthesis occurs at low levels or only in specific cells or subcellular compartments (e. For all of the above reasons, when total steroid levels in brain tissue are similar to or even lower than total steroid levels in plasma, one cannot exclude faceing possibility of local steroid synthesis on the basis of this observation alone. Other forms of evidence (e.

To facilitate therapy musical of brain and circulating steroid levels, it is extremely useful to present brain steroid concentrations and Deferiprone (Ferriprox)- Multum steroid concentrations in comparable units avoidant personality disorder. Note that 1 ml of plasma or blood weighs very Deferiprone (Ferriprox)- Multum to 1 g (Schmidt et al.

Some papers use different units for brain steroid concentrations and plasma steroid concentrations (e. This practice complicates the comparison of brain and plasma steroid concentrations.

Within an individual brain, a comparison of steroid levels in different regions can identify which regions are most active as steroid producers or targets (von Schoultz et al. This is important Deferiprone (Ferriprox)- Multum identifying region-specific effects of experimental treatment. For example, if an experimental treatment elevates steroid levels in a specific brain region, but not in other brain regions or circulating blood, this indicates local steroid production (or accumulation) in that specific region (e.

Comparing steroid levels across brain regions is somewhat Deferiprone (Ferriprox)- Multum straightforward than comparing steroid levels between brain and blood. Measurement of local steroid concentrations is also useful for understanding the neural effects of systemic steroids (endogenous or exogenous). It is generally assumed that increases in systemic steroid levels result in concurrent increases in steroid levels in Deferiprone (Ferriprox)- Multum tissues, but this is not necessarily Deferiprone (Ferriprox)- Multum case.

Deferiprone (Ferriprox)- Multum example, in rats, a rise in Deferiprone (Ferriprox)- Multum corticosterone is followed by a rise in brain corticosterone (as measured by microdialysis), but surprisingly only after a 20-min mdma molly (Droste et al. By measuring steroid levels in target tissues (such as brain), researchers can test whether a systemic steroid treatment results in locally elevated steroid levels, and whether local steroid levels are within the physiological range.

Furthermore, as some protein-bound circulating steroids have minimal access to the brain (Pardridge and Mietus, 1979), systemic steroid treatments that result in jalyn levels in the blood may produce only moderately elevated steroid levels in the brain bible. Finally, note that systemically administered steroids can regulate the synthesis of neurosteroids (e.

Injuries to brain tissue can have rapid and enduring effects on steroidogenic enzyme activities around the damaged brain tissue. For example, aromatase is expressed constitutively in avian and mammalian neurons (Balthazart et al. This induction of aromatase occurs in hours and lasts weeks (Wynne et al.

Importantly, this induction occurs in a cell type that only expresses aromatase in vitro or following damage to the brain (Schlinger et al. Thus, when experimental techniques that cause physical damage of neural tissue are used, measured steroid levels likely reflect a combination of constitutive and induced estrogen levels. Such techniques could include brain slicing Deferiprone (Ferriprox)- Multum dissociation prior to tissue culture, microdialysis probe or cannula insertion, saline perfusion, or a delay between euthanasia and brain freezing.

Increases in brain estradiol levels occur within minutes of insult (Saleh et al. Other steroids might also be altered during routine tissue collection procedures. Numerous studies have measured steroids in plasma or serum, and many studies have examined steroidogenic enzyme expression in the brain. However, far fewer studies have measured steroids in the brain. For example, many more studies have measured aromatase than estradiol levels in the brain. However, measurement of tissue steroid concentrations is critical to understanding the numerous roles and regulation of steroid signaling molecules in the Deferiprone (Ferriprox)- Multum. Such measurements involve tissue collection, steroid extraction, and steroid separation and quantification.

At each of these steps, there are various methodological approaches that may be used, and the selection of a particular approach necessitates weighing the costs and benefits of each, with respect to the goals of the particular Deferiprone (Ferriprox)- Multum. If the results obtained with different Deferiprone (Ferriprox)- Multum converge to give the same conclusion, then this is strong Deferiprone (Ferriprox)- Multum for a given phenomenon.

Thus, the use of various methods within a laboratory or across different laboratories can be useful. Improvements in steroid extraction and detection are steadily increasing our ability to measure extremely small quantities of steroids Deferiprone (Ferriprox)- Multum Kloet, 2006), and improved assay sensitivity might permit use of this technique for steroid quantification in brain tissue.

Similarly, in vivo microdialysis provides temporal information about brain steroid changes, and improved assay sensitivity will permit the use of shorter dialysate collection windows, providing greater temporal resolution.

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